The Global "Toxoid Vaccine Market" is expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.9% during the forecasting period (2022-2029).
Toxoid vaccines are made from a toxin (poison) that has been made harmless but that elicits an immune response against the toxin and used as the antigen in the vaccine to elicit immunity. These vaccines are used to protect against Diphtheria, Tetanus, and pertussis. They create immunity to the parts of the germ that cause disease instead of the germ itself.
The global toxoid vaccines market growth is driven by several factors such as rising cases of tetanus and diphtheria, increasing government initiatives for vaccination programs, and growing research & development activities for new vaccines.
Rising number of cases of tetanus and diphtheria is one of the major factors driving the growth of the market, especially in developing economies. According to the WHO, there were 15,103 reported cases in 2018 with an increase from 13,500 tetanus cases in 2016. Tetanus is a non-communicable disease contracted through exposure to the spores of the bacterium, Clostridium tetani. People of all ages can get tetanus but the disease is particularly common and serious in newborn babies and their mothers when the mothers` are unprotected from tetanus by the vaccine, tetanus toxoid. Tetanus toxoid vaccine is used for tetanus prevention by developing immunity against the pathogen causing tetanus. The low cost of tetanus vaccine is also boosting the growth of the market.
In addition, the increasing government initiatives globally are also driving the market growth. These initiatives aim to ensure that every stratum of the society, irrespective of social and economic status is granted access to immunization. For instance, according to WHO report, in 2017, tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination campaigns targeting women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were conducted in six Member States, reaching an additional 4 million women in 2017. Also, globally, all countries are committed to "elimination" of maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT), i.e. a reduction of neonatal tetanus incidence to below one case per 1000 live births per year in every district. As of March 2019, 13 countries remain that have not eliminated MNT.
However, the toxoid vaccine market is hampered by several side-effects associated with toxoid vaccine which lowers its preferability. The vaccine causes redness and pain at the site of injection, fever, and fatigue and muscles pains. There are severe allergic reactions of the tetanus toxoid vaccine which occur in less than one in 100,000 people. Also, the bipolar and contractual nature of the toxoid vaccine market leads to fall in profitability of vaccine manufacturing and low demands for these vaccines in the developed regions.
On the basis of disease, the market is segmented into tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis. Among these, the tetanus segment held the largets market share in 2018, owing to increasing number of tetanus cases globally. Tetanus is an uncommon but very dangerous disease, of every 10 people who get it, as many as 2 will die and requires treatment in a medical facility, often in a referral hospital. Neonatal tetanus is the most deadly in rural areas where deliveries take place at home without adequate sterile procedures and in unclean environment. According to the WHO, it is estimated that neonatal tetanus killed about 30,848 newborn children in 2017, a 96% reduction from the situation in 1988 when an estimated 787,000 newborn babies died of tetanus within their first month of life. Tetanus is prevented through immunization with tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccines (TTCV). The WHO recommends the use of combination vaccines containing diphtheria toxoid as well, for example Td. Neonatal tetanus can be prevented by immunizing women of reproductive age with TTCV, either during pregnancy or outside of pregnancy. This protects the mother and - through a transfer of tetanus antibodies to the fetus - also her baby. There are two DTaP vaccines available in the United States for the first five doses in children <7 years of age: Daptacel and Infanrix
On the basis of composition the market is segmented into monovalent tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DtaP), diphtheria and tetanus (DT), tetanus and diphtheria (Td) and tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap). Among these, TaP and Dt are estimted to grow significantly over the forecats period. The DTaP and DT vaccine protects young children from diphtheria, tetanus, & whooping cough. The DTaP is formulated with inactivated polio–hepatitis B (Pediarix). Adult Td can be used to vaccinate individuals 7 years and older. Tdap vaccines are available for children between 10 and 18 years of age.
Asia-Pacific toxoid vaccine market is estimated to grow at the highest growth rate during the forecast period (2020-2027), owing to rising number of tetanus and diphtheria, especially in developing countries. The low costs of the vaccine, and increasing government initiatives towards technological improvements regarding immunization and vaccination, are boosting the growth of the toxoid vaccines market in this region. In India, childhood vaccinations were supported with a policy that encouraged women to give birth in sanitary environments. The Indian government offered a payment of $21 for every delivery in a hospital, and women who insisted on a traditional delivery at home were offered free sterilized delivery kits. The National Technical Advisory Group on Immunization (NTAGI), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare has also recommended the replacement of TT vaccine with Td vaccine in India’s immunization programme for all age groups, including pregnant women.
The global toxoid vaccines market is highly competitive with presence of smaller and major players. Some of the major players in the market include: Sanofi Pasteur, AstraZeneca Plc, Panacea Biotec, Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck & Co. Inc., Astellas Pharma Inc., Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Emergent Biosolutions, Bharat Biotech, among others.
The key players are adopting various growth strategies such as product launches, mergers & acquisitions, partnerships, and collaborations which are contributing to the growth of the toxoid vaccines market globally. For instance,
In June 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for review the Biologics License Application (BLA) for Sanofi’s MenQuadfiTM Meningococcal (Groups A, C, Y, W) Polysaccharide Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine candidate to help prevent meningococcal meningitis. The target action date for the FDA decision is April 25, 2020.
In January 2019, the U.S. FDA has approved the expanded use of Adacel® (Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine Adsorbed) to include repeat vaccination to help protect against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis. It is now the first and only Tdap vaccine in the U.S. approved for a repeat dose in people 10 through 64 years of age 8 years or more after the first vaccination. Adacel is also the only Tdap vaccine available in a syringe made without natural rubber latex, which may help reduce risk to patients with an allergy.
In December 2018, the U.S. FDA has approved VAXELIS(TM) (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus, Haemophilus b Conjugate [Meningococcal Protein Conjugate] and Hepatitis B [Recombinant] Vaccine) for use in children from 6 weeks through 4 years of age. VAXELIS was developed as part of a joint-partnership between Sanofi and MSD (Merck).
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