The Global Schistosomiasis Drugs Market is expected to grow at a high CAGR of 3.8% during the forecasting period (2022-2029).
Schistosomiasis, also known as Bilharzia, Blood fluke, and Katayama fever, is an acute and chronic disease caused by the parasitic worm Schistosoma genus. The disease is spread through waterborne transmission. The Schistosoma parasites are found in rivers, lakes, water parks, ponds, swimming pools, municipal water, and streams. Infection with S. haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and S. japonicum causes illness in humans while less commonly, S. mekongi and S. intercalatum can cause disease. However, the worms that cause schistosomiasis are not found in the United States, but more than 200 million people are infected worldwide. Infection can be spread through direct contact with the infected animal and person. In 2015, schistosomiasis transmission had been reported from 78 countries.
Schistosomiasis symptoms occur when the body reacts to the worms' eggs. Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, blood in the stool, blood in urine, vomiting, liver enlargement, fever, kidney damage, weakness, rash, and body aches are some of the symptoms of the disease. Some other chronic symptoms include genital lesions, vaginal bleeding, and nodules in the vulva. It is recommended by healthcare professionals for repeated examination to confirm the schistosomiasis parasite in the stool and urine. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and blood tests also help to diagnose schistosomiasis. If no eggs are found in urine or feces other tests such as endoscopy, colonoscopy, echocardiograms, ultrasound, liver biopsy, and MRI, are recommended for better diagnosis. If schistosomiasis is left untreated, it may lead to complications related to the cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, central nervous system, spleen, liver, bacterial infections, urinary obstruction, and even death.
The global schistosomiasis drugs market growth is driven by factors such as the rising prevalence of schistosomiasis, inadequate healthcare facilities, and lack of safe drinking water in developing countries.
The increasing incidence of Schistosomiasis is driving the market growth
More than 140 million people, 90% of who live in Africa, are infected with schistosomiasis. An estimated 700 million people are at risk of infection in 76 countries where the disease is considered endemic, as their agricultural work, domestic chores, and recreational activities expose them to infested water. Globally, 200,000 deaths are attributed to schistosomiasis annually. Transmission is interrupted in some countries.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates show that in 2018, about 290.8 million people required preventive treatment for schistosomiasis, out of which more than 97.2 million people were reported to have been treated while in 2017, an estimated 102.3 million people were treated.
Hence, the increasing incidence of schistosomiasis is leading to a rise in research and development for its treatment by private manufacturers and research organizations. Several clinical trials are undergoing to expand the potential future of schistosomiasis drugs.
The growing development of novel vaccines for the treatment of schistosomiasis is expected to drive the market growth
As per the University of Nottingham research in 2017, the infiltrin protein on a parasitic egg may be responsible for this infectious disease. This discovery is expected to create opportunities for the targeted development of vaccination. Also, the College of Science at Oregon State University (OSU), discovered a new protein in Biomphalaria glabrata snail, known as Grctm6 in 2017.
In 2015, Dr. Afzal Siddiqui, a professor at the Tech Health Sciences Center, has received a patent for a vaccine to treat schistosomiasis. The vaccine showed successful results in pre-clinical trials and undergoing clinical trials for safety and efficacy evaluation. Some patent applications have also been filed in China, India, and Brazil. Dr. Siddiqui aims to develop and distribute this vaccine at affordable rates for infected people. This is expected to drive the growth of the schistosomiasis drugs market over the forecast period.
High demand for preventive chemotherapy against schistosomiasis is boosting the schistosomiasis drugs market
As per the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2017, around 92% of people require preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis in Africa. Around 75% of school-aged children are at risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis. Also, 78% of the economies have an epidemic outbreak of schistosomiasis, and 52% of those countries require preventive chemotherapy. In addition, according to the WHO estimates, in 2016, around 207.7 million people required preventive chemotherapy; among them, around 111.8 million were school-aged children.
The lack of a hygienic environment and safe drinking water in emerging countries is expected to drive the growth of the schistosomiasis market.
In May 2017, the Global Schistosomiasis Alliance organized the world’s Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) program hosted by World Health Organizations (WHO). Several organizations from different economies supported this schistosomiasis control initiative program, which includes Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Research for Control and Elimination (SCORE), The Ministry of Health (MoH), and The Federal Ministry of Health Ethiopia (FMHE).
However, the high cost of drugs and stringent approval process restrains the market growth. The presence of a large patient pool and unmet medical needs are anticipated to provide lucrative opportunities for market growth.
In the United States, acute and chronic schistosomiasis infections are not common. However, it is estimated that around 400,000 infected persons have immigrated to the U.S., neither susceptible snail species nor chronically infected human reservoirs sufficient to infest freshwater exists. Pathogenic schistosomes can survive and replicate in human hosts for a long time. Hence, persons who have traveled or immigrated may present to EDs with active cases of acute or chronic schistosomiasis and associated end-organ complications. Most of the infected patients remain asymptomatic. Acute symptoms are more common in nonimmune travelers because of a severe immune response following exposure.
Globally (excluding the United States), schistosomiasis is a major source of mortality and morbidity. Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by S mansoni occurs in about 52 nations, including Caribbean countries (i.e., Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Antigua, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Dominican Republic), eastern Mediterranean countries, South American countries (i.e., Brazil, Venezuela, Surinam), and most countries in Africa.
Other Schistosoma species that may cause intestinal symptoms and diseases include S japonicum, S intercalatum, and S mekongi.S intercalatum is found in about ten countries within the rain forests of Central Africa. S japonicum is endemic in 4 countries in the western Pacific region (i.e., China, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand). S mekongi infection occurs in the Mekong River area of Southeast Asia (i.e., Kampuchea, Laos, Thailand). The urinary schistosomiasis caused by S haematobium affects 54 countries in Africa and the eastern Mediterranean.
Over 207 million people in around 74 countries have the active schistosomal infection. Of this population, around 60% have disease symptoms, including organ-specific complaints and problems related to chronic anemia and malnutrition from the infection; more than 20 million are severely ill.
However, the targeted interventions combining snail control improved water supply quality, and treatment of infected persons, especially children, have shown success in diverse endemic areas, including China, Brazil, Egypt, and some areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
As per the WHO, the global distribution of schistosomiasis has changed. It has been eradicated from Japan and Lesser Antilles islands, the transmission has been stopped in Tunisia, and the transmission is very low in Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Venezuela, and Puerto Rico.
COVID-19 Impact Analysis
The COVID-19 is affecting the global economy by directly affecting production and demand, by disturbing the supply chain and market disruption, and by its financial impact on firms and financial markets. The global schistosomiasis drugs market has seen negative growth from the COVID-19 pandemic, as stakeholders are increasingly searching for newer approaches towards diagnosing and curing patients affected by the COVID-19.
Schistosomiasis Drugs Market Segment Analysis
The schistosomiasis drugs market can be segmented based on-site, species type, drug class, and distribution channel.
By Drugs type, Praziquantel (Biltricide) is expected to witness rapid growth
Praziquantel (Biltricide): Praziquantel drug is used to treat schistosomiasis and is more effective on adult worms. Praziquantel is used for the treatment of individual patients and mass community treatment programs. The mechanism of action is complex for this drug as it induces ultrastructural changes resulting in increased permeability to calcium ions. Calcium ions accumulate in the parasite cytosol, which leads to muscle contractions and ultimate paralysis of adult worms. The tegument membrane of the worm is damaged, exposing the worm to the immune response of the patient, which leads to worm death. The recovery rate with praziquantel is more than 85%. In persons not recovered, the egg burden is markedly decreased.
Oxamniquine (Vansil): Oxamniquine is effective only against S mansoni. The cure rate with the drug is around 60-90%. Oxamniquine is no longer available in the United States. Oxamniquine drug is metabolized into an ester by schistosomes. The drug damages the tegument of male schistosome worms so that the immune system of the patient can kill the organisms. It stops female worms from producing eggs. Surgical alternatives can include the removal of tumors, shunt surgeries, and granuloma removal. Its mechanism of action is complex.
Most human schistosomiasis is caused by S haematobium, S mansoni, and S japonicum. Less prevalent species, such as S mekongi and S intercalatum, may also cause systemic human disease. Less importantly, other schistosomes with avian or mammalian primary hosts can cause severe dermatitis in humans (e.g., swimmer's itch secondary to Trichobilharzia ocellata).
Source: DataM Intelligence Analysis (2019)
The Middle East & Africa is dominating the global schistosomiasis drugs market
The Middle East & Africa region accounted for the largest share of the schistosomiasis drugs market, followed by South America, Asia, Europe, and North America. South Africa is the largest contributor to the schistosomiasis drugs market in Middle East & Africa. The market in South America is expanding rapidly due to an increase in the patient population, especially in Brazil. However, Europe and Asia-Pacific are estimated to grow over the forecast period. Around 120 million people are symptomatic with schistosomiasis, with 20 million having severe clinical disease. Over 200,000 deaths per year are due to schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Women washing clothes in infested water are at major risk. Hygiene and playing in mud and water make children vulnerable to infection. Around forty million women of childbearing age are infected. Around 10 million women in Africa have schistosomiasis during pregnancy.
In Africa and Brazil, refugee migration to urban areas is transmitting the disease to new locations. Rising population size and growing needs for power and water have led to increasing transmission. Around 5-10% of an endemic community are heavily infected, and the remainder has mild to moderate infections. The risk of infection is highest amongst those who lived near rivers or lakes. In Uganda, almost no transmission was found to have occurred at altitudes greater than 1400 m or where the annual rainfall was less than 900 mm.
In the Western Pacific Region, intestinal schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines and China and caused by Schistosoma mekongi is endemic in two provinces in Cambodia and one province in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Intestinal schistosomiasis can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and blood in the stool. Elimination of schistosomiasis in the region is targeted through community empowerment with the One Health approach, composed of health promotion, preventive chemotherapy campaigns, improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), treatment and management of domestic animals, and livestock, and focal snail control.
Some of the major players in the schistosomiasis treatment market include Chemos GmbH & Co. KG, Shin Poong Pharma. Co. Ltd., Meher Distributors Pvt. Ltd., Merck & Co., Salvensis, Bayer AG, LondonPharma Ltd, Merck & Co., Inc., 3S Corporation Kancera AB, Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Avanscure Lifesciences Pvt. Ltd, CBC Pharma., VHB Life Science Inc., Samarth Pharma Pvt. Ltd., Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd., and Egyptian International Pharmaceuticals Industries Co SAE (EIPICO). These companies offer various drugs, which are being used for preventive chemotherapy. The major players are adopting several growth strategies such as product launches, acquisitions, and collaborations, which are contributing to the growth of the schistosomiasis Drugs market globally.
Bayer AG is a German multinational pharmaceutical and life sciences company headquartered in Leverkusen. Bayer's areas of business include human and veterinary pharmaceuticals; consumer healthcare products; agricultural chemicals, seeds, and biotechnology products. The Pharmaceuticals Division focuses on prescription products, especially for women's healthcare and cardiology, and also on specialty therapeutics in the areas of oncology, hematology, and ophthalmology. The division also comprises the Radiology Business Unit which markets contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging equipment together with the necessary contrast agents.
BILTRICIDE® (praziquantel): Praziquantel is a medication used to treat a number of types of parasitic worm infections. Specifically, it is used for schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, tapeworm infections, cysticercosis, hydatid disease, and other fluke infections. It should not be used for worm infections of the eye. It is taken by mouth.
Get your free sample proposal with a single click!